An evaluation on factors that influence

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An evaluation on factors that influence

Some of the methods suggested are well known, others less so, such as measures of land fragmentation and Lipton's absolute poverty criterion. Many of the factors listed have the potential to be useful indicators of sustainability for, although the data requirements for their quantification may be substantial, they can be fairly well-defined and are likely to prove reasonably consistent from one situation to another; comparatively straightforward to collect; and sensitive to changes in the system over time.

Because the present emphasis of the FESLM is on analysis of sustainability on a particular site, Table 4 does not give explicit consideration to environmental accounting or to factors that relate to an extended population such as equitability-which might be measured in terms of landless households, women land owners, or income inequality, for example.

As discussed in Chapter 6, the off-site or secondary effects of particular land use practices may be of immense importance, and the economic consequences of such effects will sometimes have to be addressed.

There are ways of incorporating environmental costs into analyses at enterprise or farm level. For example, costs of production may be modified in the light of tangible or intangible costs to the environment such as a recalculation of gross margin in terms of a polluter tax on a farm chemical, a government subsidy, or a value to take account of "loss of amenity value ".

The intangible costs are very difficult to quantify, but may be an integral part of an analysis at higher levels of aggregation-such as the watershed or regional level.

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Evaluation in the SDG era: Lessons we ignore at our peril - EVALUATION FOR DEVELOPMENT Learn how to look at some of the ways you might structure an evaluation and how to choose the way that best meets your needs.

Once indicators have been assembled, subsequent stages of the FESLM will generally require further analysis of the economic environment. The long-term economic health and sustainability of a household may not be immediately obvious - even if measures for appropriate factors are quantified; our knowledge of the underlying processes is, in general, much less extensive, than comparable knowledge of physical or biological processes.

Nevertheless, a great variety of economic tools procedures has been developed that can be used in attempting to establish cause and effect in the economic environment.

Each tool has advantages and disadvantages both methodological and practical and is only appropriate for particular classes and levels of problem. Once the appropriate level of analysis has been decided upon parcel, enterprise, farm, household, village, watershed, or regionthe capabilities of the various analytical techniques can be compared and considered.

However, special regard should be paid to the following: Examination of some of the indicators listed in Table 4 will help to determine the need, and guide the choice of further analyses designed to recognize and establish root causes of any unsustainability in the economic environment of particular land management practices.

Factors of the Social Environment by G. Spendjian The question "acceptable to whom? All of the various stakeholders interested in the use or management of a particular resource need to be identified.

Those extracting 'rent' from a particular resource and exerting pressures on it may be either directly occupying the area in question, or be removed from it but exerting no less an influence as a result of their need to derive surpluses from the land use system.

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Forward and backward linkages from the actual production system eg. Not just the benefits of land use, but also its costs, frequently occur off-site. The reasons for the concern outside the immediate area can vary. For example, land management practices can have an immediate practical impact on the livelihood of those living in contiguous areas.

Or they can be unacceptable to certain groups far removed from the area in question, and this for purely aesthetic or ethical purposes, such as consumers in Europe boycotting wood products cut from primeval forests.

In other circumstances governments may be the determinants of 'acceptability' by the demands they make on the land in question or the policies they put in place. Social acceptability can be seen, therefore, as an aggregate of the views of various individuals and groups which in turn are a reflection of their attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, and norms, and on their relationship to the specific land management approach in question.

An evaluation on factors that influence

The different views will influence overall social acceptability-usually in proportion to the strength of these views and to the relative power and authority of the players. Factors which are largely within the control of individuals, and others which for the most part lie outside their control but which exert a strong influence, will together determine overall social acceptability.

The 'rent' derived from a specific land use practice is determined in large part by factors exogenous to the area under investigation, to availability of markets, to the existence of infrastructure, to a complex system of private and public entities which determine prices of inputs and outputs.

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This is to underscore the fact that factors such as the cost of living greatly influence whether a 'sustainable livelihood' is derived from a certain land management practice. Some Social Issues Understanding and characterizing social formations: The social context which constitutes the subject of investigation within the evaluation framework must therefore be seen in its full complexity-as a nested set of individuals and social units; within and between which exist interactions, relationships and links of various sorts.

To understand such social formations associated with a particular land management or production system, several fundamental questions need to be answered: Looking at the social context with this schema in mind will facilitate the exploration of the factors outlined in Table 5 and elaborated upon further.

Assessment of the macro-social political and economic climate vis-a-vis social justice, equity and participation: Identification of social factors in evaluating the sustainability of land use and management must begin with the premise that sustainability is difficult, if not impossible, to attain in a context not characterized by social justice, equity, participation, and the existence of demographic institutions.

While it is possible to conceive of maintaining for a while the productivity-or the sustainability-of the resource base in a specific location where there is extreme poverty and social deprivation, this is very unlikely to happen without highly oppressive and autocratic control systems being in place.

The evaluation should, therefore, make a qualitative assessment of whether these macro-social, political, and economic conditions exist in the particular social context framing the land use in question. This, in part, involves making an assessment as to whether there exists a generalized appreciation within the society in question that the function of the socio-economic system is to provide 'sustainable livelihoods' for all, and a consensus as to what that implies.

The policy environment and legal, fiscal and regulatory frameworks: These are all parts of the overall social framework.

An evaluation on factors that influence

All need to be considered in evaluating the sustainability of land management. Input subsidies, prices, taxes, credit mechanisms, punitive measures, laws regarding resource use, are parts of the structure of incentives which, undoubtedly, have an enormous impact on the behaviour of economic agents and on the livelihood which can be generated from resource utilization.

They strongly influence sustainability, therefore, and the rate of environmental degradation.The Independent Evaluation Group evaluates the work of the World Bank Group to find what works, what doesn't, and why.

IEG evaluations provide an objective assessment of World Bank Group results, and identify lessons learned from experience. Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of can assist an organization, program, project or any other intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regard to the aim and.

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Results of the study showed that all the five factors: Implementation process (X1), interpersonal relationships (X2), rater accuracy (X3), informational factors (X4), and employee attitudes (X5) had a significant.

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Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons.. A skeletal muscle refers to multiple bundles of cells called muscle fibers. FDIC Law, Regulations, Related Acts [Table of Contents] [Previous Page] - Statements of Policy Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines.

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