This includes advertisements or statements using any media, including print, radio, television, websites and social media channels like Facebook and Twitter. There are no specific or different consumer laws or rules in place for social media.
Bibliography "The general belief holds that representative government is the only form of democracy that is feasible in today's sprawling, heterogeneous nation-states. However, interactive telecommunications now make it possible for tens of millions of widely dispersed citizens to receive the information they need to carry out the business of government themselves, gain admission to the political realm, and retrieve at least some of the power over their own lives and goods that many believe their elected leaders are squandering" [ 1 ].
Since the earliest conceptualization and discussion of the political, communication has held an equally prominent position, both in terms of its necessity for political ideas to be transmitted and replicated, and as a tool by which political actors seek to ensure the predominance of their ideas through improved methods of communication [ 2 ].
In the polis, as conceived by Aristotle, direct communication among and between all the political actors in the system was an attainable ideal. The growth of larger and more geographically diverse states necessitated the development of alternative modes of interaction as societies moved from direct political interaction to representative political action.
Those chosen to represent the interests of others in the political system have historically used a variety of methods to obtain information about their constituents' preferences, including physically touring their districts periodically, reading letters from constituents, and polling their constituents about key issues.
All these methods can be time consuming and costly to employ, limiting the frequency with which they can be used and by extension the quality of information which can be regularly obtained. However, the changing nature of communication ushered in by the dawning of the age of electronic communications, and the concomitant decline in the costs of communication on a global scale has profound implications for political interaction among representatives and their constituents, and for economic and political development throughout the world.
This paper focuses explicitly on the impact these changes may have on political communication and potentially on the formation and maintenance of democratic political regimes in Africa.
The Role of Information in Promoting Democratization "Now as in the past it is difficult to separate the quality and cast of political life from the methods of communication that sustain it. But behind the changes wrought by technology, organization, and the scale of politics, there is also a certain sameness.
Linked to the communication structures which characterize a society, and in fact inseparable from them, are numerous face-to-face relationships. Much of the political business of the world is still done in such situations, and it would indeed provide a mistaken view of the communication process to concentrate on machines and organizations to the exclusion of the face-to-face groupings which are a prominent feature of all political systems" [ 3 ].
Writing over thirty years ago, Richard Fagen cautioned against reading too much into the impact of technological developments such as radio and television on political communication and ultimately on the conduct of politics. He argued that while technology does matter in the functioning of a political system, that there are more elemental relationships of power in political communication that are unaffected or barely affected by the development of enhanced methods of communication such as television and radio because those relationships are the one-to-one interactions that remain a critical part of the political process.
In other words, the political elite will always be small enough to remain relatively unaffected by changes in communications. This paper argues that while it is certainly true that the actual decision-making in a political system even a democratic one may remain concentrated at the level of a few individuals, the complexity of information which those individuals use to engage in decision-making processes especially constituency feedback is equally important and is subject to influence by the changing nature of communications.
As electronic communication enables citizens to directly and instantaneously convey their wishes to their representatives with ever decreasing costs, the nature of political interaction is likely to change. There are several direct consequences which can be highlighted: In what Grossman calls the "Electronic Republic", the power of individual citizens is increased is several ways: There is greater access to those who represent the individual in the political system, and to information about issues, decisions and pending legislation that might affect the individual.
There is greater influence both as an individual who can more easily communicate his or her views on a topic directly to elected representatives, and indirectly through easier access to issue advocacy organizations.
There are other, more subtle implications of this shift in public power for elected representatives and for citizens themselves. For representatives, this could mean the transformation in the definition of their role; from the more traditional conception of the representative as someone who is selected to represent his or her constituents by considering the facts surrounding various issues and making carefully reasoned decisions on that basis with the interests of his or her constituents in mind; and someone who is merely a proxy for his or her constituents, adding up the constituency responses on a given issue and voting accordingly.
The electronic media has given a larger percentage of constituents than ever before the ability to easily and qui ckly transmit their opinions on public policy issues to their representatives. The danger is that whereas a representative is supposed to consider what is best for his or her district as a whole including all members of the districta proxy is constrained to represent the majority viewpoint.
This dominance of a majority faction could have serious repercussions in the African context. At the same time, and in the same vein, the opportunity costs of participation are reduced.
Electronic access could potentially erase disparities of distance and geography, minimizing the rural-urban distinction that has had significant political implications in Africa in the past.
Aside from these direct consequences, Grossman sees as an additional consequence a power shift in the electronic republic: By empowering ordinary citizens to participate more directly in their political system, Grossman argues, electronic communications increases the role of citizens in the policymaking process at the expense of the political "middlemen" who have historically provided the forum by which ordinary citizens could make their interests on specific issues known through interest aggregation and representation.
Not only this, but electronic communication and participation in politics may eventually lead to a more direct democracy in which general participation is increased with both potentially positive and negative consequences.University of Leicester researchers to identify the benefits and challenges of promoting mental health through social media.
A new project led by the University of Leicester aims to explore the. Home › News › The role of media in promoting the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda in Africa.
The role of media in promoting the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda in Africa.
Posted on December 3, The media has an immense role to play in this endeavor. GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA: WHAT ROLE FOR THE MEDIA.
Ifeoma Dunu, PhD. Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. for the media to assess the performance of elected public office holders at single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development” (UN, ).
Second, it identifies the symbiotic relationship. Mar 04, · Role of Folk Media in Promoting Health & Nutrition. Media has always been a powerful tool of communication. Over the ages media has matured, developed and . Role of Media in Democracy 1 I. INTRODUCTION A leading Palestinian journalist is jailed in the West Bank for broadcasting sessions of the Palestinian Legislative Council.
When it comes to political communication on social media, news is (one of) the primary source of public information, and recent literature emphasizes the role of news in promoting communicative diversity on social media.